Open Science Glossary

Open Access, FAIR, Repository, Green Route etc. - Have you lost the overview? Our glossary will help

Here you will find an overview of some core elements of Open Science.

These are only some of the most essential terms, a detailed list of Open Science definitions can be found for example at FOSTER, on Wikipedia or in the Open Science Training Handbook.

Alternative metrics, also known as altmetrics, are measures that assess the impact and reach of scholarly works across social media, news articles, blogs, and other online platforms. They complement traditional citation metrics by providing faster feedback and a broader perspective on the engagement and influence of scientific research.

A bronze journal article is one that is available on its publisher’s website but does not have an explicit open license and therefore cannot be deemed fully open access.

Citizen Science is defined differently around the world. Österreich forscht points out this diversity of definitions and describes the term as follows: In very simplified terms, in Citizen Science scientific projects are carried out with the assistance or completely by interested amateurs [lat. amator “lover”]. The Citizen Scientists formulate research questions, report observations, carry out measurements, evaluate data and/or write publications. Compliance with scientific criteria is a prerequisite. This not only enables new scientific projects and new findings, but also a dialogue between science and society that would otherwise be impossible or very difficult. You can find an overview of the concepts and ideas on the website Österreich forscht.

A Data Management Plan (DMP) is a document that outlines how research data will be managed during and after a research project. It includes information on data collection, storage, security, usage, sharing, and archiving to ensure the data’s integrity, accessibility, and reusability.

The FAIR Data Principles are guidelines that aim to ensure that research data is “Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable”.

The gold route of OA publishing – also known as Open Access Gold – refers to the initial publication of scholarly works as articles in OA journals, as OA monographs or as contributions to an OA edited volume or conference proceedings.

The green route of OA publishing – also Self Archiving or Open Access Green – refers to the secondary publication of documents published by a publisher on institutional or disciplinary OA repositories.

The term Open Access (OA) stands for unrestricted and free access to scientific information on the internet. This primarily includes scientific publications, but also primary data and metadata, source texts and digital reproductions.

Researchers deposit their work directly in thematic or institutional archives so that it can be consulted by all with no barriers.

OER refers to free learning and teaching materials that are published under an open licence and (under certain conditions) can be used, edited and redistributed free of charge.

Open Methodology means opening up and making available the methods used in research to achieve results.

Open Methodology means opening up and making available the methods used in research in order to achieve results.

Open Metrics are standardized metrics and formats for collecting and presenting data, enabling consistent and interoperable use. They aim to ensure transparency and traceability in the provision and utilization of these metrics.

Open peer review is an generic term for a number of overlapping ways in which peer review models can be adapted to the goals of open science, including disclosing reviewer and author identities, publishing reviews, and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

Open Research Data is data that has been created in the course of scientific work (e.g. through digitisation, source research, experiments, measurements, surveys or interviews) and is offered ‘openly’, i.e. freely accessible worldwide via the Internet.

Plan S is a strategy to promote open access to scientific findings that have been developed with public or private funding. The project is supported by 31 national and international research funders, organisations and non-profit foundations, see

Repositories are document servers on which materials can be archived and made accessible free of charge.

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