Open Science Glossary

Open Access, FAIR, Repository, Green Route etc. - Have you lost the overview? Our glossary will help

Here you will find an overview of some core elements of Open Science.

These are only some of the most essential terms, a detailed list of Open Science definitions can be found for example at FOSTER, on Wikipedia or in the Open Science Training Handbook.

The FAIR Data Principles are guidelines that aim to ensure that research data is “Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable”.

The term Open Access (OA) stands for unrestricted and free access to scientific information on the internet. This primarily includes scientific publications, but also primary data and metadata, source texts and digital reproductions.

Open Research Data is data that has been created in the course of scientific work (e.g. through digitisation, source research, experiments, measurements, surveys or interviews) and is offered “openly”, i.e. freely accessible worldwide via the internet.

Plan S is a strategy to promote open access to scientific knowledge generated with public or private funding. The project is supported by 29 national and international research funders, organisations and non-profit foundations, see

Repositories are document servers where materials can be archived and made accessible free of charge.

Open Evaluation signals openness in scientific evaluation through peer review and bibliometrics.

Open Peer Review is the term for a range of overlapping ways in which peer review models can be adapted to the goals of Open Science, including disclosure of reviewer and author identities, publication of reviews, and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

Open Metrics means openness of the data, methods and results of bibliometric analyses. The traceability and reusability of evaluation procedures offer new possibilities in dealing with scientific findings in the field of research, technology and innovation.

Citizen Science is defined differently around the world. Österreich forscht points out this diversity of definitions and describes the term as follows: In very simplified terms, in Citizen Science scientific projects are carried out with the assistance or completely by interested amateurs [lat. amator “lover”]. The Citizen Scientists formulate research questions, report observations, carry out measurements, evaluate data and/or write publications. Compliance with scientific criteria is a prerequisite. This not only enables new scientific projects and new findings, but also a dialogue between science and society that would otherwise be impossible or very difficult. You can find an overview of the concepts and ideas on the website Österreich forscht.

Open Methodology means opening up and making available the methods used in research to achieve results.

The green route of OA publishing – also Self Archiving or Open Access Green – refers to the secondary publication of documents published by a publisher on institutional or disciplinary OA repositories.

The gold route of OA publishing – also known as Open Access Gold – refers to the initial publication of scholarly works as articles in OA journals, as OA monographs or as contributions to an OA edited volume or conference proceedings.

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